Oracle DB – Connect Fails

Smart Panda - Oracle Development

Oracle Database – ORA-01017 when running “sqlplus / as sysdba”

 Smart Panda - Oracle DB SecurityI had a new oracle database server that was working great, and after some security, changes to tighten up the server, the operating system user was receiving an ORA-01017 error every time it tried to connect using the “sqlplus / as sysdba” command. The user could connect with no problem using the command “sqlplus sys as sysdba” and entering the password.

As it turned out the operating system user in this case “oracle” was not in the Oracle group “dba”.

After adding the user back into the dba group the user was able to log back in without an issue:

usermod -a -G dba oracle

PeopleSoft Oracle – Security Setup

Smart Panda - Oracle Development

 Smart Panda - Oracle DB SecurityOracle – Security Setup

I had a client ask me last week to change up all the oracle – security setup in their production Oracle Database. The cleanup was relatively straightforward because we only use the basic accounts for the PeopleSoft environment and all the passwords had been changed since going live so there was very little risk to the environment, but they wanted to be safe so:

PeopleSoft Default Accounts: Access-Id, this account is typically by default sysadm, however you can define this account to be pretty much any name, it just needs to ensure that it is an 8-digit id and even though Oracle says the password can be greater, I highly recommend the password be 8 digits and make sure not to include any funky characters (we have seen all sorts of issues with this password being anything special). The next account we need to ensure it is working correctly is the Connect-Id, this account is used for authentication purposes with PeopleSoft.  This account has a base of 3 tables it can select data from, PSOPRDEFN, PSACCESSPRFL, PSSTATUS. As of PeopleTools 8.55, an additional grant for select is on table PSACCESSPROFILE which basically replaces PSACCESSPRFL and supposedly supports passwords up to 30 characters. The next account you will see is the PS account, this account is created when the environment is built and contains an table PS.PSDBOWNER that shows the database name with the schema owner for that database. The PS account is not allowed to be connected to.  The last two accounts you should have be default are SYS & SYSTEM, neither of which should be accessed by anybody expect your DBA.

The first major item is that they wanted the dba’s to have dedicated accounts instead of using the sysadm account.  So to do this:

In SQL*Plus:

create user dbauser1 identified by dbapassword1 ;

grant create session, grant any privilege to dbauser1;

grant connect, resource, dba to dbauser1;

grant unlimited tablespace to dbauser1;

All the work the dbauser1 needs to do is in the sysadm schema, but when it logs in it will default to the schema dbauser1.  So to fix this, we build a trigger to execute a call to switch the current schema on login:

In SQL*Plus:

CREATE OR REPLACE TRIGGER LOGIN_SCHEMA
AFTER LOGON ON DATABASE WHEN (USER in (‘DBAUSER1′,’DBAUSER2’))
DECLARE
exsql VARCHAR2(100);
BEGIN
exsql := ‘ALTER SESSION SET CURRENT_SCHEMA = SYSADM’;
EXECUTE IMMEDIATE exsql;
END;
/

In order to troubleshoot the environment we had created a sysadm_read account which had the role sysadm_read_only, which has select access to all PS tables in the SYSADM schema. This account was shared by multiple users for data validation.  It was determined that they wanted to have dedicated accounts for each user and they wanted to have a higher level of password security so this is where things go creative.

The first element that I want to enable is a better level of password security. Oracle has delivered password verify functions which can be applied to the environment quickly and easily.  You will want to modify the script to ensure that it affects the correct profile for your environment.  The script is:  utlpwdmg.sql which for Oracle 12c introduced two functions ora12c_verify_function and ora12c_strong_verify_function.  For my example I went with the ora12c_verify_function that more than meets the minimum requirements for the client. So now we create a new profile for the database users:

In SQL*Plus:

create profile sysadm_read_only limit
failed_login_attempts 3
password_lock_time 1
password_life_time 90
password_reuse_max 3
PASSWORD_VERIFY_FUNCTION    ora12c_verify_function    ;

This creates a new profile that allows for only 3 failed login attempts, if the user fails all 3 times the account is locked out for 1 day. Password is valid for 90 days, and can only be used every 4th time it is changed, and the password verification as at least 8 characters, at least 1 letter, at least 1 digit, must not contain database name, must not contain user name or reverse user name, must not contain oracle, must not be too simple like welcome1, and must differ by at least 3 characters from the old password (ora12c_verify_function).

Now we just need to create the new users with the sysadm_read_role:

In SQL*Plus:

create user readuser1 identified by readpassword password expire profile sysadm_read_only;

grant sysadm_read_role to readuser1;

grant connect to readuser1;

Now when the user logs into the environment they will be required to change their password and they will have read only access to the sysadm schema.  We have stored procedure that is scheduled to run nightly that grants select access to all PS tables in the sysadm schema and creates public synonyms for each one so that the read only users can select from the PS tables.  The grants are done to the sysadm_read_role Role.

Windows: What Group(s) Security Does My User Have

The Smart Panda - Windows

The Smart Panda - WindowsWindows Security – User Groups

So have you working in a windows environment and found yourself not able to access a specific directory because of windows security? Well I find many times when working on systems at clients that they have done some odd security things to their directory structures.  So the question becomes what groups does my user profile have access to so that I can determine what level of access I have to the directory(s) in question.

From the command line use this command:

gpresult /r

This will generate a extensive list of information but at the end it will show the “User Settings”

Smart Panda - gpresults command

Oracle: Password Policy – Turn Off

Smart Panda - Database

Oracle: Password Policy

Smart Panda - DatabaseWell working with a new PeopleSoft Oracle Database, I went to create a new connect id user on the database with a relatively straight forward password and the database angry told me – NO. It said that the password policy required specific elements to be included with the password.  As most people know the system administrator password and connect id password associated with the Oracle Database need to be 8 characters long and should only contact alpha and numeric characters.  Seriously do not try to make it long or shorter and never put special characters in the password.  Over the years I have been mesmerized by the number of times this password has caused me grief.

So if there is a complex password policy set on the default profile you can turn it off by issuing the following command within sqlplus:

ALTER PROFILE "DEFAULT" LIMIT PASSWORD_VERIFY_FUNCTION NULL;

To determine what the profile is, you can issue the following statement:

select profile from DBA_USERS where username = '<username>';

 


Smart Panda - IdeaGood To Know:

There are many elements in the profile that can cause issues one of them is the password expiry option.  Often not a good plan to have you main database account to stop functioning because of a password expiration, because Murphy’s Law says it will expire the day your DBA is on vacation and they will NOT pick the phone up that day.

Click here to go article:  Oracle Database User – Password Expiry

ENCRYPT_PASSWORD Fails with JVM Error

When building environments with PeopleTools 8.53 & 8.54 everything will be going along tickety boo and it will go to encrypt the passwords and bam:

Error: Process aborted. Possibly due to JVM is not available or missing java class or empty password.

Well, isn’t that interesting.  The PeopleTools 8.53 and 8.54 have a new SALT component to its passwords and clearly uses the Java to do the encryption.  Add %PS_HOME%\jre\bin to the beginning of the PATH variable and re-run data mover and try the encryption of the passwords again.